Exotic metalsOil (plastics and energy)Recycled materials, where possibleVirgin materials – especially in components are a real problem
Subcomponent processingToxic materials use (BFRs, blowing agents, solvents)Energy inputAssembly
Diesel for the boats, trucks, and trainsAviation fuel for air transport
Energy use for chargingToxic materials exposureReplacement parts: battery, repair parts service
End Of Life
Developed nation reuse: ReCellular-type donation to needy individualsResponsible recycling in developed nations for resource recoveryTransshipment to developing nationsReuse as a mobile deviceResource recovery by backyard methods is highly hazardous, and often involves child labor
Human Health impacts
RadiationRadiation has not been conclusively linked to carcinogenis, but studies are ongoing as to whether microwave radiation from mobile devices is a hazard. The Interphone study of 6000 individuals with brain cancer did not find any link, nor did a 420 000 person Danish study find any conclusive link.As a marketing issue, radiation probably is not as large a concern as it was in the past, and as the radiation output is proportional to radio transmitter strength, the current emphasis on signal quality is likely to overrule concerns regarding radiation exposure.
Reducing the exposure to toxic materials by end users is an important design goal, and also a strong marketing position. Marker Ski Bindings slogan "where others use plastic, we use stainless steel" stands as a testament to the power of materiality. Making the shell out of metals and glass will reduce environmental impact at the end of life, extend the life of the product, and reduce toxic exposures. The additional embodied energy added in processing will be paid off in increased durability, and with the reduced need for internal components and fasteners, the burden will be similar or possibly reduced compared to conventional (2010) devices.
Reduction of toxic materials will improve worker health and safety as well, as their exposures to hazards will be reduced, and the risk of serious exposure will also decrease.
Reinvention – the Smart Ubicomp Device
The iPhone has shown the value of vertical integration of the device and the application services for it. Unfortunately, Apple’s MobileMe isn’t nearly as slick, and Microsoft’s ecosystem integration isn’t quite perfect, but synchronization with cloud data services and with your other computers really is the important part of the smartphone experience. I see the future being a hybrid-cloud model where there is local storage of data and cloud storage, and the smartphone is a bridge between the two. Sorry Google, the cloud isn’t perfect. Too many outages, too many places where there is no data connection (like on that transpacific flight …)
CommunicationVoiceSMSVideoconference (it’s coming, eventually)
Camera (still/video)The book The Best Camera Is the One That’s With You makes the case for the iPhone as a primary camera. While the iPhone doesn’t have a flash, zoom lens, or particularly good optics, it is always there. Better cameras and noise suppression could make this even more viable substitute for a point-and-shoot.
Web accessIt’s here. Mobile web will continue to improve, as will methods for navigating.
Augmented RealityAugmented reality is an up-and-coming thing at ITP, which means it’s going to be a big thing soon. Context awareness is going to be pretty amazing. Crazy games, real time advice, and even better navigation platforms.
Application SupportApplications ranging from a virtual float level to Word Mobile make it possible to work and play anywhere, and in terms of convergence, the smartphone is where it’s going to be. The App Store really revolutionized the concept of the smartphone as part of a vertically-integrated ecosystem, with an easy mode of getting quality software. While the high-handedness of Apple is a subject for endless debate, the concept of simple access really made the smartphone as application platform a reality for most people
Smartphones already do audio and video, better outputs can replace heavier equipment like DVD players. I’d be pretty stoked to dock my phone to a pico projector and project some HD video anywhere, or connect digitally to a home receiver. DLNA is almost there, but people haven’t really been using it yet. Unfortunately for me, my late-70’s receiver doesn’t receive 2.4Ghz signals…
Data collection from mobile devices with sensors and wireless network access has the potential to make many systems and services better. The possibilities are really incredible in terms of benign surveillance (one would hope benign)—tracking the speed of traffic on the highway, to detect traffic jams before they really cause a blockage, or just tracking my cycling would be good applications, as would applications like Project NOAH – Networked Organisms and Habitats (an ITP project) which uses mobiles for citizen science and education.
Persuasive Technology Platform
Smartphones are an ideal persuasive technology platform, as they are always with us, and offer an enormous amount of sensing and communication ability. Mobile platforms for health promotion and sustainability will become more prevalent and powerful in the years to come, pushing the
The PEIR project (http://peir.cens.ucla.edu) uses mobile sensing to analyze travel patterns, and encourage healthy eating and lower impact travel options (e.g. take the train rather than driving).
Replacement of other devices
The power of smartphones and their omnipresence makes it possible to replace a group of other devices with one ‘convergence device’. It’s a camera, it’s a reader, it’s all in your pocket! (hence the former name PocketPC)
The kindle, iPad, and similar devices bridge the gap between a smartphone and notebook PC, but are still a bit to carry around all the time. Improved screens and applications could make it more pleasant to read on a smartphone screen. I for one use my smartphone to read the news, which eliminates a rather large amount of paper and shipping for newspapers and periodicals. The networked nature of electronic devices opens a new frontier of interaction, which can be exploited in ways I cannot conceive.
Mandate for return of used devices to the manufacturer
As mobile devices are almost completely composed of ‘technical nutrients,’ a closed loop cycle should be the paradigm of the future. Currently, the system promotes replacement of devices when the contract rolls over (generally every two years), but there is no promotion of recycling. Policy should be changed to require the return of the current phone before receiving a new one, and a penalty should be assessed if a new device is purchased without trade-in, to cover the additional cost to the system of not having a device to recycle. An exception for first time purchasers could be instituted, as smartphones are a positive force in modern life for sustainability, by convergence and as a persuasion platform.
Separate manufacturers from service providers
In most countries, wireless service is independent of device purchase. This arrangement avoids subsidies for devices, and therefore expensive devices should turn over less frequently. If you have to buy a device for $600, you should want to keep it longer than if the purchase price were $200 + 2 year contract.
Networks which profit heavily from restrictive contracts could be reined in by policy changes: making it illegal to subsidize devices by entering into a contract would change the wireless provision structure, and carriers would then be forced to compete more aggressively on service and price. The telecom lobby is very strong, it should be more heavily regulated by the government in order to promote better service and a more sustainable product-service system
The first mover under the new regulatory regime, instituting a closed materials loop and reducing taxed bads will enjoy a great market advantage. Where Apple achieved enormous market penetration with the iPod by being the ‘first best product’, a device manufacturer (Apple or someone else) could do the same in the mobile space if there were a regulatory shift. A company like HTC, RIM, or Nokia whose largest segment is mobiles would have a serious incentive to revolutionize their practices (even beyond WEEE compliance), Apple, Samsung, LG, and Motorola would be under less pressure, as they have other business divisions.
To this end, the first mover can jump the pack by becoming a force for change—If, say, Nokia has the most sustainable products and a highly flexible OS platform, they can lobby to raise the minimum standards for mobiles in terms of sustainability, and pressure competitors to match in terms of aesthetics, features, price, and compliance, in a race to the top paradigm. While a six year life as opposed to a two year life would reduce revenue from sales, sale of applications, media, and OS upgrades (if the market would support pay-for-major upgrades), could sustain a business model.